The President of Peru, Ollanta Humala, signed the 10-year moratorium to the introduction of GMOs (crops and animals, including aquatic), that was passed by the Parliament in early November. Excluded from the new rules are GMOs used for the research and production of pharmaceutical and veterinary products, given that Peru is subject to existing international trade agreements. Also unaffected by the moratorium is the import of GM-products for direct human or animal consumption or for the manufacture of food or fodder. According to the new regulations though, products exempt from the moratorium must undergo a GMO risk assessment before they can be used. It is expected that this law will prevent widespread cultivation of GMOs and therefore protect Peruvian biodiversity. It should also increase food exports in the coming years by about one billion U.S. dollars.